Stephen Hawking's The Theory of Everything is a short book that can act as an introduction to the subjects of cosmology raised by modern science, but the book . "The Theory of Everything" presents the most complex theories, both past and .. Not only did Stephen Hawking describe those concepts easily in this book, but. STEPHEN W. HAWKING. THE THEORY OF. EVERYTHING. THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF THE UNIVERSE. S P E C I A L A N N I V E R S A R Y E D I T I O N.
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This short book consists of a compilation of several lectures by Stephen Hawking. Many of the ideas from them appear in several of his past books. Hawking. Professor Stephen Hawking, a Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, is the pre-eminent theoretical physicist in the world. His book A Brief History of. THE ILLUSTRATED THEORY OF EVERYTHING and millions of other books are . In physicist Stephen Hawking's brilliant opus, A Brief History of Time.
Hawking attempts to explain sophisticated and complex mathematical ideas in an unsophisticated, perhaps childlike but charming way. He briefly covers the history of ideas about the universe from Aristotle, Augustine, Newton, Einstein, Hubble, and Feynman. He then explains the Big Bang, black holes, and space-time and incorporates these thoughts into the search for a unified theory of everything. Although Hawking does not announce the arrival of the Theory of Everything, he does explain, in simple metaphors, the flavor of what such a theory would encompass.
One of the more important concepts of his involves the idea that the "beginning" of the universe does not necessarily imply a singularity or in holistic terms, a oneness. If we wish to hold consistency with quantum mechanics the most successful scientific theory to date then a no-boundary condition would best describe the beginning. Needless to say, this contradicts many religious ideas about a creation although he empathizes that these ideas represent only a proposal.
Hawking represents one of the most brilliant theoretical scientists of our time. He advocates the idea of communicating the ideas theoretical science in a way to make it understandable, in principle, to everyone, not just scientists. Hawking has an acute awareness of the religious impact of his theoretical studies and explains in a clear but inoffensive way that the universe does not conform to the common belief of an all powerful Creator.
A few quotes from the book: An expanding universe does not preclude a creator, but it does place limits on when He might have carried out his job. We now know that our galaxy is only one of some hundred thousand million that can be seen using modern telescopes, each galaxy itself containing some hundred thousand million stars.
This behavior of the universe [expanding universe] could have been predicted from Newton's theory of gravity at any time in the nineteenth, the eighteenth, or even the late seventeenth centuries. Yet so strong was the belief in a static universe that it persisted into the early twentieth century. Please sign in to write a review.
Synopsis Author. Visit the Stephen Hawking author page.
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Brian Greene. Terry Pratchett. Just Six Numbers. Martin Rees. A particle of spin 1 needs to be turned around all the way to look the same again, like this arrow. All particles for example, the quarks have something called spin.
The spin of a particle shows us what a particle looks like from different directions. For example, a particle of spin 0 looks the same from every direction. A particle of spin 1 looks different in every direction, unless the particle is spun completely around degrees.
The Theory of Everything : The Origin and Fate of the Universe
Hawking's example of a particle of spin 1 is an arrow. A particle of spin two needs to be turned around halfway or degrees to look the same.
The example given in the book is of a double-headed arrow. All of these particles follow the Pauli exclusion principle. Pauli's exclusion principle says that particles cannot be in the same place or have the same speed. If Pauli's exclusion principle did not exist, then everything in the universe would look the same, like a roughly uniform and dense "soup". This is a proton. It is made up of three quarks.
All the quarks are different colors because of confinement. Particles with a spin of 0, 1, or 2 move force from one particle to another. Some examples of these particles are virtual gravitons and virtual photons. Virtual gravitons have a spin of 2 and they represent the force of gravity.
This means that when gravity affects two things, gravitons move to and from the two things. Virtual photons have a spin of 1 and represent electromagnetic forces or the force that holds atoms together.
Besides the force of gravity and the electromagnetic forces, there are weak and strong nuclear forces. Weak nuclear forces are the forces that cause radioactivity , or when matter emits energy. Strong nuclear forces are the forces that keep the quarks in a neutron and a proton together, and keeps the protons and neutrons together in an atom. The particle that carries the strong nuclear force is thought to be a gluon.
The gluon is a particle with a spin of 1. The gluon holds together quarks to form protons and neutrons.
Theory of everything
However, the gluon only holds together quarks that are three different colors. This makes the end product have no color.
This is called confinement. Some scientists have tried to make a theory that combines the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force. This theory is called a grand unified theory or a GUT. This theory tries to explain these forces in one big unified way or theory.
Chapter 6: Black Holes[ edit ] A picture of a black hole and how it changes light around it. Black holes are talked about in this chapter.
Black holes are stars that have collapsed into one very small point. This small point is called a singularity.
Black holes suck things into their center because they have very strong gravity. Some of the things it can suck in are light and stars. Only very large stars, called super-giants, are big enough to become a black hole. The star must be one and a half times the mass of the sun or larger to turn into a black hole.
This number is called the Chandrasekhar limit. If the mass of a star is less than the Chandrasekhar limit, it will not turn into a black hole; instead, it will turn into a different, smaller type of star. The boundary of the black hole is called the event horizon. If something is in the event horizon, it will never get out of the black hole. Black holes can be shaped differently. Some black holes are perfectly spherical - like a ball.
Other black holes bulge in the middle. Black holes will be spherical if they do not rotate. Black holes will bulge in the middle if they rotate.
Black holes are difficult to find because they do not let out any light. They can be found when black holes suck in other stars. When black holes suck in other stars, the black hole lets out X-rays , which can be seen by telescopes. In this chapter, Hawking talks about his bet with another scientist, Kip Thorne. Hawking bet that black holes did not exist, because he did not want his work on black holes to be wasted. He lost the bet. Hawking realized that the event horizon of a black hole could only get bigger, not smaller.
The area of the event horizon of a black hole gets bigger whenever something falls into the black hole. He also realized that when two black holes combine, the size of the new event horizon is greater than or equal to the sum of the event horizons of the two original black holes. This means that a black hole's event horizon can never get smaller.
Disorder, also known as entropy , is related to black holes. There is a scientific law that has to do with entropy. This law is called the second law of thermodynamics , and it says that entropy or disorder will always increase in an isolated system for example, the universe.
The relation between the amount of entropy in a black hole and the size of the black hole's event horizon was first thought of by a research student Jacob Bekenstein and proven by Hawking, whose calculations said that black holes emit radiation. This was strange, because it was already said that nothing can escape from a black hole's event horizon.
The Theory of Everything : The Origin and Fate of the Universe
This problem was solved when the idea of pairs of "virtual particles" was thought of. One of the pair of particles would fall into the black hole, and the other would escape. This would look like the black hole was emitting particles. This idea seemed strange at first, but many people accepted it after a while. Chapter 8: The Origin and Fate of the Universe[ edit ] The Big Bang and the evolution of the universe How the universe started and how it might end is discussed in this chapter.
Most scientists agree that the universe started in an expansion called the Big Bang. The model for this is called the "hot big bang model". When the universe starts getting bigger, the things inside of it also begin to get cooler. When the universe was first beginning, it was infinitely hot. The temperature of the universe cooled and the things inside the universe began to clump together. Hawking also discusses how the universe could have been. For example, if the universe formed and then collapsed quickly, there would not be enough time for life to form.
Another example would be a universe that expanded too quickly. If a universe expanded too quickly, it would become almost empty.
The idea of many universes is called the many-worlds interpretation. Inflationary models and the idea of a theory that unifies quantum mechanics and gravity also are discussed in this chapter.
Each particle has many histories. This idea is known as Feynman's theory of sum over histories. A theory that unifies quantum mechanics and gravity should have Feynman's theory in it. To find the chance that a particle will pass through a point, the waves of each particle needs to be added up. These waves happen in imaginary time. Imaginary numbers, when multiplied by themselves, make a negative number. Chapter 9: The Arrow of Time[ edit ] In this chapter Hawking talks about why "real time" as humans observe and experience it in contrast to the "imaginary time" in the laws of science seems to have a certain direction, notably from the past towards the future.
The things that give time this property are the arrows of time. Firstly, there is the thermodynamic arrow of time.Grand unification would imply the existence of an electronuclear force; it is expected to set in at energies of the order of 10 16 GeV, far greater than could be reached by any possible Earth-based particle accelerator.
The electric charge, colour, and parity properties of such fermions would arise in the same way as for the first generation. Higher Education and Professional Books. In the 18th century, Sir William Herschel confirmed the positions and distances of many stars in the night sky.
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The usual assumed path of theories is given in the following graph, where each unification step leads one level up:. The highest point of a wave is the crest, and the lowest part of the wave is a trough.
Phoenix Books; Special edition May 1, Language: Reports on Progress in Physics.
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