THIRD EDITION CHING Architecture/Reference or more than thirty years, the beautifully illustrated Architecture: Form, Space, and Order has been the classic. Francis D. K. Ching, Architecture Form, Space And Order 3rd Edition. ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Third Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Ching, Frank, Architecture--form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching.
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ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Fourth Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Ching, Frank, Architecture: form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching. for buildings. The forms and spaces of any building should acknowledge the programming, designing, and making of buildings that ordering principles are. Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd cresadtgehomual.gq - Ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf) or read book online. Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd edition.
The illustrated examples are neither exhaustive nor necessarily the prototypes for the concepts and principles discussed.
Their selection merely serves to illuminate and clarify the formal and spatial ideas being explored. These seminal ideas transcend their historical context and encourage speculation: How might they be analyzed, perceived, and experienced? How might they be transformed into coherent, useful, and meaningful structures of space and enclosure?
How might they be reapplied to a range of architectural problems? This manner of presentation attempts to promote a more evocative understanding of the architecture one experiences, the architecture one encounters in literature, and the architecture one imagines while designing. For the second edition, my appreciation goes to the many students and their teachers who have used this book over the years and offered suggestions for its improvement as a reference and tool for study and teaching.
I want to especially thank the following educators for their careful critique of the first edition: L. Rudolph Barton, Laurence A.
Clement, Jr. Steinfeld, Cheryl Wagner, James M. Wehler, and Robert L.
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In preparing this third edition, I am thankful to Michele Chiuini, Ahmeen Farooq, and Dexter Hulse for their thoughtful reviews of the second edition.
While I have attempted to incorporate much of their wise counsel, I remain solely responsible for any deficiencies remaining in the text.
To Debra, Emily, and Andrew, whose love of life it is ultimately the role of architecture to house. These conditions may be purely functional in nature, or they may also reflect in varying degrees the social, political, and economic climate.
In any case, it is assumed that the existing set of conditions—the problem—is less than satisfactory and that a new set of conditions—a solution—would be desirable. The act of creating architecture, then, is a problem-solving or design process.
The initial phase of any design process is the recognition of a problematic condition and the decision to find a solution to it. Design is above all a willful act, a purposeful endeavor. A designer must first document the existing conditions of a problem, define its context, and collect relevant data to be assimilated and analyzed.
This is the critical phase of the design process since the nature of a solution is inexorably related to how a problem is perceived, defined, and articulated. The shaping of the question is part of the answer. This book focuses, therefore, on broadening and enriching a vocabulary of design through the study of its essential elements and principles and the exploration of a wide array of solutions to architectural problems developed over the course of human history.
As an art, architecture is more than satisfying the purely functional requirements of a building program. Fundamentally, the physical manifestations of architecture accommodate human activity. However, the arrangement and ordering of forms and spaces also determine how architecture might promote endeavors, elicit responses, and communicate meaning. So while this study focuses on formal and spatial ideas, it is not intended to diminish the importance of the social, political, or economic aspects of architecture.
Form and space are presented not as ends in themselves but as means to solve a problem in response to conditions of function, purpose, and context—that is, architecturally. The analogy may be made that one must know and understand the alphabet before words can be formed and a vocabulary developed; one must understand the rules of grammar and syntax before sentences can be constructed; one must understand the principles of composition before essays, novels, and the like can be written.
Once these elements are understood, one can write poignantly or with force, call for peace or incite to riot, comment on trivia or speak with insight and meaning. In a similar way, it might be appropriate to be able to recognize the basic elements of form and space and understand how they can be manipulated and organized in the development of a design concept, before addressing the more vital issue of meaning in architecture.
All of these constituents can be perceived and experienced. Some Architectural order is created when the organization of parts makes visible may be readily apparent while others are more obscure to our intellect and their relationships to each other and the structure as a whole.
When these senses. Some may convey images and meaning while others serve as singular nature of the whole, then a conceptual order exists—an order that qualifiers or modifiers of these messages. Villa Savoye, Poissy, east of Paris, —31, Le Corbusier This graphic analysis illustrates the way architecture embodies the harmonious integration of interacting and interrelated parts into a complex and unified whole.
Its inside order accommodates the multiple functions of a house, domestic scale, and partial mystery inherent in a sense of privacy. Its outside order expresses the unity of the idea of house at an easy scale appropriate to the green field it dominated and possibly to the city it will one day be part of.
Francis D. K. Ching, Architecture Form, Space And Order 3rd Edition
If the line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from plane to spaces, the clash of planes gives rise to body three-dimensional. A summary of the kinetic energies which move the point into a line, the line into a plane, and the plane into a spatial dimension.
Each element is first considered as a conceptual element, then as a visual element in the vocabulary of architectural design. While they do not actually exist, we nevertheless feel their presence. We can sense a point at the meeting of two lines, a line marking the contour of a plane, a plane enclosing a volume, and the volume of an object that occupies space. When made visible to the eye on paper or in three-dimensional space, these elements become form with characteristics of substance, shape, size, color, and texture.
As we experience these forms in our environment, we should be able to perceive in their structure the existence of the primary elements of point, line, plane, and volume. At the center of its environment, a point is stable and at rest, organizing surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field.
When the point is moved off-center, however, its field becomes more aggressive and begins to compete for visual supremacy. Visual tension is created between the point and its field. To visibly mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a point must be projected vertically into a linear form, as a column, obelisk, or tower. Any such columnar element is seen in plan as a point and therefore retains the visual characteristics of a point. Other point-generated forms that share these same visual attributes are the: Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c.
The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius marks the center of this urban space.
Michel, France, 13th century and later. The pyramidal composition culminates in a spire that serves to establish this fortified monastery as a specific place in the landscape. Although the points give this line finite length, the line can also be considered a segment of an infinitely longer path.
Two points further suggest an axis perpendicular to the line they describe and about which they are symmetrical. Because this axis may be infinite in length, it can be at times more dominant than the described line.
In both cases, however, the described line and the perpendicular axis are optically more dominant than the infinite number of lines that may pass through each of the individual points.
Extended vertically, the two points define both a plane of entry and an approach perpendicular to it. The Mall, Washington, D. Conceptually, a line has length, but no width or depth. Whereas a point is by nature static, a line, in describing the path of a point in motion, is capable of visually expressing direction, movement, and growth.
A line is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction. It is seen as a line simply because its length dominates its width.
Architecture: Form, Space, and Order
The character of a line, whether taut or limp, bold or tentative, graceful or ragged, is determined by our perception of its length—width ratio, its contour, and its degree of continuity. Even the simple repetition of like or similar elements, if continuous enough, can be regarded as a line. This type of line has significant textural qualities. The orientation of a line affects its role in a visual construction.
While a vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space, a horizontal line can represent stability, the ground plane, the horizon, or a body at rest.
An oblique line is a deviation from the vertical or horizontal. It may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising. In either case, whether it is falling toward a point on the ground plane or rising to a place in the sky, it is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state.
Place de la Concorde, Paris. The obelisk, which upright megalith, usually standing alone This cylindrical shaft commemorates marked the entrance to the Amon temple at Luxor, but sometimes aligned with others. Louis Phillipe and installed in Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of space. In the example illustrated to the left, four minaret towers outline a spatial field from which the dome of the Selim Mosque rises in splendor.
Selim Mosque, Edirne, Turkey, A. Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland, —30, Robert Maillart. The sculptured female figures stand as columnar supports for the Beams and girders have the bending strength to span the space entablature.
Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century. Linear columns and beams together form a three-dimensional framework for architectural space.
An example is the axis, a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged. Villa Aldobrandini, Italy, —, Giacomo Della Porta House 10, , John Hejduk Although architectural space exists in three dimensions, it can be linear in form to accommodate the path of movement through a building and link its spaces to one another.
Buildings also can be linear in form, particularly when they consist of repetitive spaces organized along a circulation path. As illustrated here, linear building forms have the ability to enclose exterior spaces as well as adapt to the environmental conditions of a site.
These lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials, by frames around window or door openings, or by a structural grid of columns and beams. How these linear elements affect the texture of a surface will depend on their visual weight, spacing, and direction. A transparent spatial membrane can be stretched between them to acknowledge their visual relationship.
The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey. A series of parallel lines, through their repetitiveness, reinforces our perception of the plane they describe.
Architecture: Form, Space, & Order, 4th Edition
As these lines extend themselves along the plane they describe, the implied plane becomes real and the original voids between the lines revert to being mere interruptions of the planar surface. The diagrams illustrate the transformation of a row of round columns, initially supporting a portion of a wall, then evolving into square piers which are an integral part of the wall plane, and finally becoming pilasters—remnants of the original columns occurring as a relief along the surface of the wall.
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Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site.The simpler and more regular a shape is, the easier it is to perceive and understand. Closure Four vertical planes establish the boundaries of an introverted space and influence the field of space around the enclosure.
The edges of the volume of space can be visually reinforced by articulating its base plane and establishing its upper limits with beams spanning between the columns or with an overhead plane. It can be lowered or elevated to alter the scale of a space, define a path of movement through it, or allow natural light to enter it from above.
Vitruvius termed this a tetrastyle atrium. All of these constituents can be perceived and experienced. Clement, Jr.