Richard Meier was born in Newark, New Jersey in Richard Meier graduated from Cornell University in then worked with a series of architects, . Richard Meier & Partners Architects LLP. works for. Page 2. Page 3. We thank you for the opportunity to cooperate on the following project: BACKGROUND. Richard Meier is a late modernist architect born in in New. Jersey. After earning a bachelor of architecture from Cornell. University in
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PDF | Beyond its widespread use for representing technical aspects and In a case study using Richard Meier's language for single-family. Richard Meier studied architecture until at Cornell University and opened his own architecture office in Essex Fells, New Jersey in after he had. This is not intended to be an offer to sell nor a solicitation of offers to download real estate in Ward Village or the Gateway Towers condominiums by residents of.
In such system, each volume is expressed as an individual entity and can only be experienced through sequential progression from one volume to another or via a connecting volume i. Accordingly, Meier organized volumetric cells linearly and inserted a transitional zone adjacent to the main axis that connects the separate volumes and mediates between the cellular zone and the expansive zone, thus accentuating the linearity of the configuration. Meier's linear configuration is clearly expressed through the planar geometry that defines the plan composition.
Function The programmatic requirements of the house lent itself patently lo the two volumetric systems where the cellular zone houses the private functions such as the bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchen, and service areas, while the expansive zone houses the open spaces such as living areas, library and dining area fig The creation of both volumetric systems was enabled by the use of a dual structural system: wood- framing bearing walls that surround the enclosed half of the house, while steel columns and support beams form the structure of the continuous volumetric spaces.
Figure 3 Animation ofthe internal volume of rhe Smith House ch rough planar manipularion The openness of the double volume inside is animated by the free standing structural columns separated from the outer skin, horizontal planes appear to be suspended within the orthogonal volume, and the walls define and delimit space fig 4a.
Through the animation of the inside volume by the interplay of columns, walls and knee walls, and horizontal planes, Meier provides a dynamic contrast between verticals and horizontals with a sense of 'purist' equilibrium through the balancing of these elements within a cubic volume. As such, these elements acquire a double condition; a structural role in materiality and construction and an architectural role in articulation and animation, thus becoming regulating elements that intellectually structure space and guide form organization.
Through the vertical and horizontal stratification, the generic form can be dually conceived either as a solid mass or as a series of planes juxtaposed together forming a 'thick and layered bar'. These linear bars that are straight and orthogonally organized in layers are marked by the most basic architectural elements of columns and walls fig 4b.
The dialect between the mass and the layers recalls Le Corbusier's notion of mass-surface in which a sense of ambiguity is created in the figure-ground relationship where form can either be read as either 'mass', or solid that has been cut away or 'surface', that has been built up by an addition of a number of layers or planes Eisenman, He further added a vertical chimney across from the entrance ramp, and a sculptural stair projecting outside the block in a diagonal relation with the main stairs inside fig 5a.
The outer skin was further animated by window fenestration and the expansive use of glass in the facades fig 5b, 5c.
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Innately, Meier created a figure comprised of 20 Creativity, Autonomy, Function platonic forms juxtaposed in asymmetrical but balanced composition and animated by the use of the basic architectural elements such as the point, line, plane, and mass. Figure 5 Animation ofthe outer skin ofthe House through addition, subtraction, andfenesm11io11 The overall configuration of the specific form is not random; the block has been designed on an ideal geometric matrix.
The allocation of walls, columns, subdivisions and additions, and the overall massing is based on idea l geometries and disciplined through Meier's use of modules and proportional systems such as Lhe r:v2 ratio. The overall dimension of the rectilinear block is based on the ideal geometry of two squares of 26fLx 26ft fig 6a juxtaposed together giving the block the total dimension of 52ft x 26ft with the overall ratio of where a ix1fl module standardizes the actual plan except for the allocation of the columns.
The longitudinal axis of the block subdivided the house equall y marking the edge of the corridor as mentioned earlier. The over block is further subdivided in four smaller quads; the edge of the first quad defines the beginning of the house's main mass, while the edge of the third quad marks the edge of the entrance ramp.
Thus, the main mass of the house is within the Palladian ratio of Their use was perfected by Meier in Smith's the direct descendent, Theory of Architecture Conference 21 the Douglas House a couple of years after. Furthmore, unlike Morton's commentary about the equally spaced structural columns inside the house, these columns are not equally spaced: the span between the two intermediate columns is a feet and a half longer than the two outer spans on each side giving the house an A, B, A fig 6b rhythm rather than a constant one.
This however, does not lessen their value as a register of the Cartesian grid used within the design. As noted from the analysis above, the specific form of the house can be read as interplay between a figure i.
As such, the logical form of the Smith House can be thought of as a three-dimensional architectural device that provides the matrix for ordering the volumetric entity. Conclusions As importance, in this paper, is shifted from describing the physicality of the Smith House to understanding its logical form, we can conclude that a large part of its aesthetics appreciation lies in it being less of a traditional dwelling and more of an abstract idea of 'how' a house might be rethought of from first principles and elements; its form is of basic elements of architecture i.
This paper suggested that the aesthetics of exemplary building, such as the Smith House, do not.
This 'how' is ordered by logical form that operates between the abstract and the real simultaneously capturing the conceptual essence of the architectural work and guiding its physical manipulation. This aesthetic reading of architecture is only possible through a 'close reading' where the intellect is activated to distil the abstract from the concrete and reconstruct it logically and constructively.
Furthermore, as can be seen from "the formal analysis of the Smith House, the manipulation of the logical form not only skillfully articulates the corporeal form and satisfies normative criteria of order, but also brings in deeper thought and theory and renders the non-discursive discursive resulting in architecture that involves critical thinking and reflection rather than mere application of knowledge. The importance of studying logical form and presenting it constructively is multi- facet: as the conceptual essence of a building is perceptually manifested, a better 22 Creativity, Autonomy, Function understanding of the building in terms of formal ordering and organization is possible, thus opening it up for theoretical debate.
Additionally, this type of analysis describes an architectural work at different generative stages, thus, establishing links that are not immediately available to the viewer, accordingly a better understanding of the design process can be achieved.
Moreover understanding the underlying principles and order clarifies what the designer added to the design task that was not required by the design program or dictated by the site.
Furthermore, these formal systems as the ones presented earlier can be used for the systematic description, interpretation, and evaluation of existing works of architecture. This can serve as a basis for communication, whether between teacher and pupil, architect and client, or critic and public. Finally, addressing design constructively as shown earlier is not widely used in architectural education; but one might speculate that they can be used in design studios as strategies to manage the design process.
Although, it is debatable whether design can be taught, the capacity of 'doing' design can be greatly developed by reconstructing precedents. Illustration credits Plans and sections were redrawn by the by Arch Nancy Assaf based on Meier's original drawings. Aclmowledgements This research was made possible by a research grant from the University of Jordan.
References Akin, Omer. Case-Based Instruction Strategies in Architecture. Strategic Use of Representation in Architectural Massing. Design Studies A Morphology of Intentions: the historical interpretation of Mies van der Rohe's residential designs. Dissertation: Georgia Institute of Technology. Le Corhusier: an analysis ofform.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell CassirerE, The Philosophy ofSymbolic Forms. Van Nostr. New York. Classie, Henry H. Folk Housing in Middle Virginia: a structural analysis of his. Din E, Economou A. The formal Basis of Modern Architecture. Ten Canonical Buildings New York: Rizzoli Flemming, U. McCullough, W. Mitchen and P. Purcell, Ed. The Electronic Design Studio.
Forty, Adrian, Accessed 5th July Hill, Richard, Designs and their Consequences: Architecture and Aesthetics. Hillier, Bill, Space is the Machine: a configurational theory of architecture. By Jonathan Bennet. Accessed July 25th Knight, Terry, l Transformations in design: A formal approach to stylistic change and innovation in the visual arts.
Residential Masterpieces 17: Richard Meier Smith House/ Douglas House
Cambridge: Cambridge University press Krier, R. Architectural Compositions. An Introduction to Symbolic Logic. PhD Dissertation: University of Michigan. Function March, L. RIBA March : March, Lionel, ed. The Architecture of Form.
Cambridge, MA. GA Global Architecture Japan Edita. Un paginated.
Casa Smith, Richard Meier - Juan Fernando Gómez Peña
Pai, Hyungmin, Peponis, John. The Journal of Architectural Vol. Revised edition , Introduction by Michael Forsyth. Utah: Gibbs Smith Rawes, Reg, Space, Geometry and Aesthetics.
Hampshire: New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Rowe, Collin, Five Architects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schumacher, Patrick, The Autopoiesis ofArchitecture vol. Scott, Geoffrey, He is grounded on the belief that light can be used as the main material to give form to orderly, sculptural and linear architecture.
Furuto, A Meier building is a sensuous experience before it is anything else. It is an exploration of solid and void and light and texture, and an essay on composition. Every Richard Meier building is visually compelling, they are deeply beautiful. Meier explained that the design concept of the Jubilee Church is based on the contrast between the cube and the sphere and the clean division, or connection point, is the main space of the church.
Their structural idea derives from a sphere being cut in half. The pews are arranged in traditional formation, while a sense of movement succumbs the occupant when the curved concrete walls connects with the angled glass ceiling tiles.
This structure is a three dimensional extension of the gridded glass window wall. Although this organ pulpit contains elements of its surrounding structures, it stands out amongst the wood paneling, stone and glass.
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The three curved shell walls are sliced and then projected up into the sky. Opposite of the three walls is a singular horizontal plane wall. This cross is suspended in front of box with vertical lines leading back to window, leaving the symbolic illusion of the crucifix being lifted up.
Light weaves through the geometric shapes, projecting the space with brightness, giving the impression that it expands with more light.
These suggest heavy weight as there are no surface openings; however, the curved glass enclosing between the walls break it up, leaving the overall structure with a sense of airiness. The surrounding supportive walls are heavy in their stature, yet light with their white and the light reflects off their surface. The abundance of space gives meaning to all the light that enters. The single piloti on the right gives the illusion of lightness, as if that is the only structural element maintaining this prominent piece.In that transition, an external objective geometric knowledge becomes internalized in the form of aesthetic sense-experiences and aesthetic acts of construction.
Innately, Meier created a figure comprised of 20 Creativity, Autonomy, Function platonic forms juxtaposed in asymmetrical but balanced composition and animated by the use of the basic architectural elements such as the point, line, plane, and mass.
Classie, Henry H. A fully illustrated catalog, designed by Massimo Vignelli and with an introductory essay by David Shapiro accompanies the exhibition. This reading is supported by Rawes proposition that especially aesthetic form of geometry can be found in Kant's shift. The importance of the rectilinear block lies in its metaphor as a scaffold where its inherent or implied order e. Computer Systems Design and Architecture.