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Knowing these lexical bundles and using them is especially important to the corpus-based analysis as it places the individual words within a larger context.
When individual words Vol. Collocational Analysis Collocational analysis is a way in which particular words are associated with each other or their attraction to co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance Adolphs, Using collocational analysis through a corpus analysis tool will tell us how one particular word is related to a speciic group of words.
Grouping or categorizing such relationship among words can elaborate more on thematic or literary meanings. Techniques such as frequency lists of individual words, keyword analyses and type-token ratios are important.
A simple concordance can reveal a general idea of how a character is represented in the story by observing repetitive patterns in context. Adolphs illustrates more how concordance can achieve a comprehensive picture p. In terms of language and gender, Kettemann also uses the same technique to analyze personal pronouns, i.
As regards the review of literature, this study aims to answer two main research questions as follows: 1.
Wmatrix was developed by Rayson and can generate basic functions such as concordances, collocates and keywords. Wmatrix can offer three types of quantiied data as follows: a lexical b grammatical c semantical ones. At the lexical level, Wmatrix can generate basic frequency lists of the text. On the grammatical level, Wmatrix applies CLAWS the Constituent Likelihood Automatic Word-tagging System to tag each word with POS part of speech to which they belong and the system will subsequently generate frequency lists based on grammatical groupings.
As each semantic ield is annotated into A to Z according to their thematic categorizations, it Vol. Wmatrix can generate information of collocations; however, it is still under development. Therefore, another analysis tool, called AntConc Version 3. AntConc is a freeware corpus analysis toolkit, developed by Dr.
Laurence Anthony , and all basic functions e. AntConc will be used in this research to generate collocates. Two corpora specialized and general were constructed and employed to give comparison.
A specialized corpus was smaller in size and built through compilation of twenty-one books of The Famous Five. All twenty-one digital iles were converted to. On the contrary, the general corpus was larger in size and constructed from the collection of imaginative texts available in the British National Corpus.
Although the British National Corpus contains a variety of written texts e. Both specialized and general corpora were converted and uploaded into Wmatrix and AntConc programs. On the lexical level, both Wmatrix and AntConc can generate keywords which refer to lexical items that occur with a signiicantly higher frequency positive keywords or with a signiicantly lower frequency negative keywords in a collection of texts when compared with a larger reference corpus.
Keywords are important to search for a particular relevance to literary themes and gender representation and help to explain what characterizes particular discourses Adolphs, The application of Wmatrix and AntConc throughout the study is to generate empirical data to help answer both research questions as meticulous as possible.
The Famous Five is a classic literature which is compulsory for literary scholars to discuss its eminent theme recounted by the author; therefore, Wmatrix serves this purpose as it can generate information about thematic categorizations. However, the Antconc program is also needed to generate information about collocations that will spell out gender representation of male and female characters. Information gained from both programs will be investigated and analyzed based on both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Log-likelihood statistics is chosen for this study because of the fact that the data collection is relatively small when compared with the reference corpus and that it places more emphasis on lexical words, rather than grammatical words, Baker, which relate to contents and thematic features in narrative ictions. The cut-off value of this research will be set at Results and Discussion The results can be divided into two parts in response to research questions one and two respectively.
The irst part will be the results retrieved from Wmatrix program which will be used to explicate thematic categorizations. The second part will be the results retrieved from the Vol. Part 1: Wmatrix Regarding the thematic categorizations provided by USAS Tagging in Figure 1, it shows key semantic ields along with their Log-likelihood value with cut-off value at It is established as one of the means to acquaint main characters to children and to make the readers feel close to individual characters.
The second highest value demonstrates 83 Vol. He climbed int C3 ine! George looked at h C4 lly! Wi C5 eorge looked at him and her eyes shone too, as bright as the sea itself C6 ne. It was so magniicent.
The lightning tore the sky in half almost every C7. The others followed. The light from the torch showed a very quee C9 uted back George, her blue eyes shining dangerously. I alwa C11rs to the two artists, her eyes gleamed angrily. Julian shone his torch in front of him, and a C14 n to the study. For example, C1 denotes the signiicance of sunlight as a time indicator and C8 shows the usefulness of light torch while being in the darkness.
The irst literary theme suggests that there would always be a solution or exit to every problem. The theme construes the genre of the series as detective ictions, where all characters brainstorm for ideas to seek the way out of predicaments.
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It is notable that the concordances and thematic categorization could serve as a means to seek for literary themes. Figure 2 demonstrates positive overused and negative underused keywords. Positive keywords are such words or phrases that are frequently uncommon, whereas negative keywords are those of infrequently uncommon.
Personal names are overused mostly throughout the series, especially those of the protagonists e. George, Julian and the antagonist Mr.
While there is a tendency of dominant features of personal names in positive keywords, the negative keywords reveal that the series contain less use of relative pronouns e. This could substantiate that the narrative consists of simple, rather than complex, sentences and it serves the purpose as a reading selection for children. Kinship is not highlighted because the story is focused on the friendship assured among the group and this is the story of children who come from different background.
Figure 2: Positive and Negative Keywords Log-likelihood Value Keywords can be ranged from a word to phrases and Wmatrix can generate multi-word expressions results as well. These multi-word expressions are deemed promising as to emphasize literary themes discussed. Hur C7 soon as we yawn. I did want to go down on the beach for a while.
The children stared at one another, feeling sorry and dismayed. Rate it:. Book 2. The Castle of Adventure by Enid Blyton.
What is the secret of the old castle on the hill,… More. Shelve The Castle of Adventure. Book 3. The Valley of Adventure by Enid Blyton. Nothing could be more exciting than a night fligh… More. Shelve The Valley of Adventure. Book 4. The Sea of Adventure by Enid Blyton. Shelve The Sea of Adventure.
Book 5. The Mountain of Adventure by Enid Blyton. A peaceful vacation in the Welsh mountains seems… More. Shelve The Mountain of Adventure.
Book 6. The Ship of Adventure by Enid Blyton. All aboard for a quiet cruise among the Greek Is… More. I was one place above my unfortunate mules. When they hear from a Mary Rose survivor, George Symon, that one of the African free-divers who was sent to salvage its treasures is alive and well and living in Southampton, mother and daughter agree to try and find him and attempt to dive the wreck of another ship, rumoured to be rich with treasures.
This series is seen as a long-overdue addition to books such as H.
The Voices series is a step toward fully acknowledging the humanity of those with roots beyond this island. Darren Chetty is a teacher, doctoral researcher and writer with research interests in education, philosophy, racism, children's literature and hip hop culture.
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He is a contributor to The Good Immigrant, edited by Nikesh Shukla and published by Unbound, and tweets at rapclassroom. McGillis, Roderick. Ray, Sheila. Andre Deutsch, Searle, Allison.It dramatised all the original books. Five On a Secret Trail Julian shone his torch in front of him, and a C14 n to the study.
The Enchanted Wood 2. Techniques such as frequency lists of individual words, keyword analyses and type-token ratios are important. The Famous Five by Rosenzweig and Dufosse".
The Mystery of the Secret Room 4. Figure 2 demonstrates positive overused and negative underused keywords.